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How Did Here Get Here

The Mother Void

Plato likened our view of the world to that of an ancient forebear watching shadows meander across a dimly lit cave wall. He imagined our perceptions to be but a faint inkling of a far richer reality that flickers beyond reach. Two millennia later, it seems that Plato's cave may be more than a metaphor. To turn his suggestion on its head, reality -- not its mere shadow -- may take place on a distant boundary membrane, while everything we witness in our three common spatial dimensions is a quantum entangled projection of that far away unfolding. Reality, that is, may be akin to a hologram or, really, a multi-sensory holographic movie. This non-local holographic principle envisions that all we experience may be fully and equivalently described as the reflection of the comings and goings that take place at a thin and remote locus. It says that if we could understand the laws that govern physics on that distant surface, and the way phenomena there are quantum linked to experience here, we could grasp all that there is to know about reality. A version of Plato's shadow world -- a parallel but thoroughly unfamiliar encapsulation of everyday phenomena -- would be reality.

The conflict between science and religion is sometimes cast as a geographic metaphor--as a tension between Athens, ancient wellspring of secular philosophy, and Jerusalem, symbol of revealed truth. Today science is so plainly powerful that theologians can't casually dismiss secular knowledge. For most educated and thoughtful people, Athens and Jerusalem must be reconciled or Jerusalem will fall off the map. Philo of Alexandria (25 BCE – c. 50 CE), also called Philo Judaeus tried to reconcile the conflict between scientific and religious views of creation two millennia ago. Philo interpreted the 'Logos' as it was later written in John's gospel as being the noun form of the Greek term that meant 'to speak' and 'to count', and so naturally meant 'speech' and 'account' or 'computation'. On the one hand, Philo's Logos was the 'reasoning principle in the universe' and 'a natural law for all men and matter'. In that sense it was like what modern scientists would call the basic laws of physics, chemistry, and biology--the rules that keep the world operating and intact. The 'Logos' writes Philo was 'such a bond of the universe as nothing can break'.

But Philo's logos had a divine depth that mere laws of science lack. For one thing, by animating matter and men, it animated history. You might say the the same about the laws of science, but if those laws aren't god-given, there's no reason to expect the history that they animate to lead to anything in particular. The 'Logos-driven' history would eventually unify humankind in political freedom; the Logos would work 'to the end that the whole of our world should be as a single state, enjoying the best of constitutions, a democracy'.

At the same time, Philo believed the Logos had existed before humans or the earth or, for that matter, matter. Prior to creating the universe, God formulated the Logos the way an architect might conceive a blueprint or the way that a computer programmer might design an algorithm. Long before modern science started clashing with the six-day creation scenario in Genesis, Philo had pre-empted the conflict by calling those six days allegorical: they actually referred not to God's creation of the earth and animals and people, but to his creation of the Logos, the divine algorithm, which would bring earth and animals, and people into existence once it was unleashed into the material world--that is once the material world was created to serve as its implementation medium. Then God's plan could tangibly unfold. The Logos is 'God's instrument both during creation and in the cosmos's providential administration'.

Greek thinkers before and after Philo's time had talked about a logos that was active in human beings in two ways--within the mind (in the formation of a thought), and in speech (as the thought is sent into the physical world). Philo's theology applied this dichotomy to God. First God conceived the Logos in his mind. Then, upon creating the world, he, in a sense, uttered the Logos, infusing matter with it. He spoke to the universe at its beginning, and, via the ongoing guidance of the Logos, he speaks to us now. You can choose other metaphors, and scholars have--the Logos is 'the breath of God' or a 'stream' emanating from God or ' the face of God turned toward creation'--but in any event the Logos is humankind's point of contact with the divine.

This is how the Logos reconciles the transcendence of God with a divine presence in the world. God himself is beyond the material universe, somewhat the way that a video game designer is outside of the video game. Yet the video game itself--the algorithm inside the box--is an extension of the designer, a reflection of the designer's mind. Similarly, if God imbued the Logos with his spirit and his values, then to know the Logos is to sense divine intention, even to know a part of God. God may be outside the physical universe, but there is 'an immanent presence and cooperation of the divinity in the created world'. The job of sentient beings is to in turn cooperate with the divinity, a task they'll do best if they sense this presence and the purpose it imparts.

Shortly after the Logos, there was an infinite absolute conscious energy. called a Void as the primordial state of ultimate reality, a time before the initiation of the progression of the consciousness system down the long road towards the arising of consciousness and all the other present aspects of our reality. In 1997 an Argentine physicist named Juan Maldacena modeled this void as arising fom thin microscopic vibrating strings in nine dimensions. For Maldacena the nine upper dimensions were the true reality, while our physical dimension of time was the equivalent of a hologram.

In 2013, two physicists from Japan's Ibaraki University made huge strides in proving Maldacena's theory when they discovered that the internal energy and properties of a black hole precisely matched the internal energy of our physical universe--that is, if there were no gravity. Was our physical universe simply a big holographic projection? Was time an illusion and gravity its shepherd?

When this Void achieved the energy levels necessary for the first inter-dimensional corridor or traversable wormhole (Einstein-Rosen Bridge) we had a tunnel with two ends each in separate points in space time. In physics, a wormhole is a hypothetical topological feature of space time that would be, fundamentally, a 'shortcut' through space time. The image at the top of this page is intended as a simple visual explanation of an initial wormhole in a Void on a two-dimensional surface. If this surface is folded along a third dimension, it allows us to picture a wormhole 'bridge'. Around a wormhole entrance, also called a Static Black Hole, there is a mathematically defined surface membrane called an Event Horizon that marks its gravitational point of no return or the perimeter from which light itself can not escape the gravitational pull of the black hole. The Holographic Principle explains the fundamental level at which all information is defined, but it also explains the source of all information, in the same way that quantum cosmology explains the source of everything in the universe. The source of everything is the Void. All excited states of information arise from the vacuum state. The Void is the empty background space that the multi-verse is created within.


The Birth Canal

At a theoretical level there are valid solutions to the equations of the theory of general relativity which allow for the existence of wormholes. John Wheeler gave astrophysical wormholes their name based on wormholes in apples. For an ant walking on the surface of an apple, the apple's surface is the entire universe. If the apple is threaded by a wormhole, the ant has two ways to get from the top to the bottom: around the outside or down the wormhole. The wormhole route is shorter; it's a shortcut from one side of the ant's universe to the other.

Wormholes which could actually be crossed, or traversable wormholes, would only be possible if exotic matter with negative energy density could be used to stabilize them. Many physicists believe that the Casimir Effect is evidence that negative energy densities are possible in nature particularly if the Void was composed of Dark Energy. It has also been proposed that if a tiny wormhole held open by a negative-mass cosmic string had appeared around the time of the Big Bang, it could have been inflated to macroscopic size by cosmic inflation. The angular momentum (spin) and/or electrical charge of the singularity actually creates two event horizons. The outer equates roughly to the event horizon of a Static Black Hole: the point at which escape velocity equals the speed of light.Flamm Wormhole

Once past it journeying towards the singularity, the normal relationships between time and space are reversed as in the case of the static black hole. However, once you cross the inner horizon, the normal relationships between time and space are restored, ie. you revert to being able to move freely in space while being dragged inexorably by time. To an outside observer, the distance between the two horizons would theoretically appear as a region in which time stands still. As the spin and/or charge of the singularity increase, the two event horizons move closer together. They meet when the angular momentum and/or charge equals the mass of the singularity.

The idea of a black hole eludes most of us so I resort to describing how to construct one with the contents of whatever room that I am sitting in. No matter what its size and contents are, it contains many millions of molecules. In turn, if I put very strong walls around the room, I can slowly reduce its size by squeezing all of those molecules of whateverness by forcing them closer and closer to one another to eliminate the space between them. As I continue the room squeezing, I will also eliminate all of the space in between the sub-atomic particles within the molecules until I reach such an enormous concentration of mass in such a small radius that even light cannot escape its gravitational force. This little pinprick of extreme density would then have the same mass as the total of all the scrunched up furniture and people who had been in the original room. The formula is 18.5 kilometers x (mass of object)/(mass of sun). If we then reversed the squeezing process and threw in an extra chair, our resqueezed pinprick would need to be of a slightly larger radius to contain the additional mass.

There is no limit in principle to how much or how little mass a black hole can have. Any amount of mass at all can in principle be made to form a black hole if you compress it to a high enough density. We suspect that most of the black holes that are actually out there were produced in the deaths of massive stars, and so we expect those black holes to weigh about as much as a massive star. A typical mass for such a stellar black hole would be about 10 times the mass of the Sun, or about 10 with 31 zeroes after it, or 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kilograms. Astronomers also suspect that many galaxies harbor extremely massive black holes at their centers. These are thought to weigh about a million times as much as the Sun, or 10^{36} kilograms.

The Mother Singularity

For thousands of years, mankind considered itself the pinnacle of life's creation on a planet sitting in the center of the universe. Science changedOur Physical Matter Reality at the Age of 1 Planck Era that perception and helped us to see that we live near the margin of a vast galaxy, in a universe of galaxies, with our planet one of many worlds. Our entire species is but one little twig on an enormous tree of life. But each discovery that moves us from the center of creation to some obscure corner brings an entirely new relation between us, other species, and the entire universe. All the galaxies in the cosmos, like every creature on the planet, and every atom, molecule, and body on Earth are deeply connected. That connection begins at a single point 13.8 billion years ago.

As a species whose history has been in oceans, streams, and savanna plains, we humans have had our senses tuned to the chemical and physical world of land and water--to predators, prey, and mates we can see and hear. Nowhere in our history has there been a premium on the ability to perceive extra dimensions, times on the order of billions of years, or distances in a virtual infinity of light-years. To achieve these insights, we repurpose tools that served us so well in our terrestrial existence to new ends. Logic, creativity, and invention project our senses and ideas to the far reaches of time and space.

The physics of the point that existed 13.8 billion years ago is mostly beyond our imaginations, not to mention our conceptual tools. Gravity, electromagnetism--all the forces that work around us did not have an independent existence. Matter as we know it did not exist either. With everything that would become the universe packed so tightly in one spot, there was an enormous amount of energy. In such a universe, the physics of small particles, quantum mechanics, and that of large bodies, general relativity, were somehow part of a single, overarching, and still unknown theory. Just what that theory is awaits the next Einstein.

This first, static black hole, point of no return emerged in some corner of the Void where it served as our primal singularity resulting in the big bang of our Physical Matter Reality or an initial link in a long chain of Big Bangs which eventually accumulated a complex enough outer membrane to result in the birth of our PMR. The image above portrays our PMR's "Mother Singularity" as it existed in its original "heterotic superstring" form on a hot night 13.8 billion years ago when the first fermions and bosons of our PMR were born and began to propagate in all directions while increasing in their complexity due to the quantum super-positioning of all their possible states.. The excitations moving to the left (counter-clockwise) "thought" that they lived on a bosonic string propagating in 26 dimensions, while the right-moving (clock-wise) excitations "thought" that they belonged to a superstring in 10 dimensions. The big bang is not like an explosion where objects are projected from each other; space itself expands. With this expansion comes cooling over time. As the universe cools and expands, the forces and particles that make up our world today emerged.

One-trillionth of a second after the big bang, the universe was the size of a baseball. The energy contained in the universe at these early moments was the raw material for the production of a gargantuan amount of mass. As space expanded, energy, following Einstein's energy equation, converted into mass, in this case ephemeral particles. In such a hot and small universe, everything was unstable: particles formed, collided and disintegrated only to repeat the process trillions upon trillions of times.

The particles at this moment of history were of two opposing kinds, matter and anti-matter. Matter and anti-matter are opposites and annihilate each other on contact. As energy converted to mass, no sooner were matter and antimatter produced than they collided. Most of the collisions led to the particles being completely extinguished. If this were the complete state of affairs, we--people, Earth, even the Milky Way--would never be. Particles would have been destroyed almost as soon as they were formed. A slight--about one-billionth of 1 percent--excess of matter over antimatter was enough for matter to take hold in the universe. Because of that tiny imbalance, we are every bit the direct descendants of that one-billionth of 1 percent surplus of matter over antimatter as we are of our own grandparents.

One fundamental unit of time later (~ 5.4 × 10-45 ) seconds a phase shift in the probability density occurred and the super string crumbled into the three dimensions of our now familiar fundamental component of reality or an experiential simulater from which consciousness could be projected for its self-examination.

At ~ 5.4 × 10-43seconds and a temperature of 1045 degrees gravity separated itself from the union and then at 10-43 seconds the strong nuclear force exits the union as well and this triggers a massive inflation. This expansion and subsequent cooling down to 1035 degrees allows six different types of quarks to form. At 10-12 seconds and 1015 degrees the weak force and electromagnetism separate and we have the four independent forces that we know today. At this point all six types of leptons have also formed including the electron. At 10-6 seconds up and down quarks have formed protons and neutrons, all heavy quarks have decayed, all anti-matter has disappeared, and by the time our PMR is only one second old protons and neutrons are already getting together to form the lightest elements in the periodic table. For the first three minutes, as the simmering PMR cooled to about a billion degrees, the predominant nuclei that emerged were those of hydrogen and helium, along with trace elements of deuterium and lithium. This is known as the period of primordial nucleosynthesis and it marks the end of the pristine moment when there was a single law of physics governing everything and the PMR could be explored with an exceptionally good microscope, if the explorer could only find a place to sit.

As we take apart matter down to the smallest scales we must pass through layers of structure that are only possible because of the forces which hold these structures together. The proton and electron, for example, are attracted to each other and that force of attraction is what holds them together in the atom. But what is it really that causes this attraction? How does the electron know that the proton is there and what draws it toward the proton? How does the electron know not to be attracted to the neutron? The answer is that the proton and the electron both fill the space around themselves with countless millions of other tiny particles that have only the most ephemeral existence, but because it is electrically neutral, the neutron does not. These ephemeral particles come into existence only briefly and are gone only to be replaced by another one thrown out by the parent particle. On this scale, the tiny bit of energy necessary for existence can be created out of nothing but they must also disappear in the briefest instant because the energy used to create them can only exist for a brief moment of time. We can imagine these virtual particles as balls tethered to the parent particle by a rubber band and snapping back to the parent particle when they disappear. If one or more of them should encroach upon the territory of a virtual particle tethered to another parent particle, they can get entwined and exchanged. Such an exchange is felt by the parent particle as a force. These fields of virtual particles surrounding a parent particle are created in very specific patterns and fill the surrounding space in a well defined way so that scientists call them Fields. These virtual particles are called carriers or mediators of force.

Scientists recognize four distinct kinds of force fields and they all work through the mechanisms described above. We are all very familiar with two of these forces, Gravity and Electro-Magnetism operate on a scale that we encounter in our everyday lives. A third force causes quarks to stick together in protons and neutrons, and a residuum of this force causes protons and neutrons to stick together in the nucleus of atoms. This force is called the Strong Force or sometimes the Color Force. The fourth force causes radioactivity and is called the Weak Force. The virtual particles that make up these four fields are called Gauge Bosons and each of the four forces has its own gauge boson. Within limitations, energy and mass can be created out of the nothingness of space time but only for very brief instances, and the more energy and mass that these virtual particles have the shorter must be the time that they can exist before snapping back to the parent. Lighter gauge bosons can exist for a longer time and these in turn can get further from the parent before they must return. So the range of a force of the virtual particle is directly related to the mass of its gauge boson. The Photon is a gauge boson for the electromagnetic force, and the Graviton is the gauge particle for gravity. Both of these particles are massive so the range of these two forces is unlimited.

The strong force is much more complex. The charge property responsible for the response between quarks comes in three distinct states not just two as in the electrical charge state of electromagnetism. So in a loose analogy to the three primary colors of red, green, and blue; the three kinds of charges in the strong force are usually referred to as color charges and are designated as Red, Green, and Blue charges. Since the theory of electric charge is dubbed Quantum Electro-Dynamics or QED, the name for quark theory has become Quantum Chromo-Dynamics or QCD. It is interesting to note that all observed particles are white, color is never visible, and since the proton and its Baryon cousins each have three quarks, the color possessed by the three quarks must be one each of red, green, and blue -- which sum to white. As Mesons are always a quark and an anti-quark pair containing colors of red/anti-red or green/anti-green, or blue/anti-blue which are also combinations that equal white. The strong force, of course, must have its own gauge boson and it turns out that there are eight of them. Eight different Gluons that carry the color force and unlike the other force carriers, gluons have a color property themselves and therefore interact with each other. Every time two quarks interact and exchange a gluon, they swap colors. Also because gluons are attracted to each other, it is possible to have a gluon collection which is referred to as, what else, a Glueball. The interactions that result from a weak force are incredibly short ranged. They are effective over a distance even smaller than a proton's diameter and this accurately implies that the weak force gauge particles, called the W and the Z, are immensely heavy. Over distances small enough and at really high energies the four forces are indistinguishable because their respective force particles are also indistinguishable.

How do fields express their principles? Physicists use terms like photons, electrons, quarks, quantum wave functions, relativity, and energy conservation. Astronomers use terms like planets, stars, galaxies, Hubble shift, and black holes. Thermodynamicists use terms like entropy, first law, second law, and Carnot cycle. Biologists use terms like phylogeny, ontology, DNA, and enzymes. Each of these terms can be considered to be the thread of a story. The principles of a field are actually a set of interwoven stories about the structure and behavior of field elements, the fabric of the multiverse.

Our Physical Matter Reality is therefore like a bubble in the void with the outer film of the bubble serving as a map for the holographic simulation of its interior. The theories tell us everything arises from the nothingness of empty space as a quantum fluctuation in the zero energy level of the Void. All that us conscious observer projections can view are excited states of information arising from the Void, encoded by virtual particle fluctuation. Separation of virtual particles from virtual anti-particles at the Event Horizon creates a two dimensional Planck unit bitmap from which a holographic virtual reality can be projected for the enjoyment of the future simulations of conscious objects.

The Standard Model

Universal Erector SetThe particle actors on the great stage of our Physical Matter Reality serve as lego blocks for the construction of our grand illusion. The Quarks are tiny, massive subatomic particles. They make up protons, neutrons, and the nuclei of all the elements in the PMR. They also make up fun, weird little oddities (like mesons and heavy baryons) that we've discovered thanks to particle accelerators and cosmic rays. Each of the six quarks comes in three different colors (red, green, and blue), two different spins (+½ and -½), and in both matter and anti-matter varieties, for a total of 72 possible states. Ultimately, the quarks are responsible for the majority of the visible matter in the PMR.

The Leptons are much lighter than their quark counterparts. The most famous, the electron, is responsible for electricity and for turning those protons, neutrons, and nuclei into atoms. The six leptons can all exist in matter and anti-matter varieties, but while the electron, muon, and tau can have two different spins (+½ and -½), the three neutrinos don't get a choice; the "matter" neutrinos are all spin -½ and the "antimatter" ones are all spin +½. They all have masses, including neutrinos, which shouldn't. (Indicating that there is something beyond the standard model.) All told, there are 15 different types of leptons.

The Force Carriers are the particles responsible for the forces between the quarks and leptons. There's the photon, responsible for the electromagnetic force, which we know best in its role as light. It doesn't come in matter and anti-matter varieties, though, as its own antiparticle, and the only two states it can have are from its different spins (+1 and -1; 0 is forbidden because it's massless). There are the W's (electrically charged + and -, with spins +1, 0, and -1) and the Z (neutral, with spins +1, 0, and -1), the particles responsible for the weak force and for radioactive decay. And then there are the gluons, the massless "glue" that's responsible for the strong nuclear force. It holds protons, neutrons, and nuclei together. Gluons also have two different spins (+1 and -1), eight different color combinations, and no electric charge. All told, this means there are 27 different states for the force carriers, which nails down all of the known forces except gravity.

The Theoreticals include the Higgs which would interact with (or "couple to") the quarks, the charged leptons, and the weak force carriers, giving mass to all of them, but not with the photons or gluons, leaving them massless. Gravitons are postulated as the particles mediating the force of gravitation in the framework of quantum field theory. If it exists, the graviton must be massless (because the gravitational force has unlimited range) and must have a spin of 2. This is because the source of gravitation is the stress-energy tensor, a second-rank tensor, compared to electromagnetism, the source of which is the four-current, a first-rank tensor. Additionally, it can be shown that any massless spin-2 field would be indistinguishable from gravitation, because a massless spin-2 field must couple to (interact with) the stress-energy tensor in the same way that the gravitational field does. This result suggests that if a massless spin-2 particle is discovered, it must be the graviton, so that the only experimental verification needed for the graviton may simply be the discovery of a massless spin-2 particle. The Tachyon is a hypothetical particle that always moves faster than light. In the language of special relativity, a tachyon would be a particle with space-like four-momentum and imaginary proper time. A tachyon would be constrained to the space-like portion of the energy-momentum graph therefore, it cannot slow down to subluminal speeds.

Schwarzschild Radius

Schwarzschild RadiusThe bubble film bitmap of Planck unit particles on the outside membrane or Schwarzschild Radius of our PMR can be thought of as a set of simple information storage bits. For example, if one particle, such as an electron, is switching from one quantum state to another, it may be the same as if a bit is changed from one value (0, say) to the other (1). A single bit suffices to describe a single quantum switch of a given particle. As the PMR appears to be composed of elementary particles whose behavior can be completely described by the quantum switches they undergo, that implies that the universe as a whole can be described by bits. Every state is information, and every change of state is a change in information (requiring the manipulation of one or more bits). Setting aside dark matter and dark energy, which are poorly understood at present, the known PMR consists of about 1080protons and the same number of electrons. Hence, the universe could be emulated by a computer capable of storing and manipulating about 1090 bits. If such an emulation is indeed the case, then hypercomputation would be impossible.

Dark Things

Physical Matter Reality in Accelerated ExpansionIn 1998 the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of very distant supernovae showed that, a long time ago, the PMR was actually expanding more slowly than it is today. So the expansion of the PMR has not been slowing due to gravity, as everyone thought, it has been accelerating. No one expected this, no one knew how to explain it. But something was causing it. The diagram at left reveals changes in the rate of expansion since the PMR's birth 13.8 billion years ago. The more shallow the curve, the faster the rate of expansion. The curve changes noticeably about five to six billion years ago, when objects in the universe began flying apart at a faster rate. Astronomers theorize that the faster expansion rate is due to a mysterious, dark force that is pulling galaxies apart. We know how much dark energy there is because we know how it affects the PMR's expansion. Other than that, it is a complete mystery. But it is an important mystery. It turns out that roughly 74% of the PMR is dark energy. Dark matter makes up about 22%. The rest -- everything on Earth, everything ever observed by the consciousness simulations with all of our instruments, all normal matter -- adds up to less than .4% of the PMR.

Over the past twelve years astrophysicists have been trying to uncover two of dark energy's most fundamental properties: its strength and its permanence. New observations have now revealed that dark energy was present and obstructing the gravitational pull of the matter in the PMR even before it began to win this cosmic "tug of war". Einstein first conceived of the notion of a repulsive force in space in his attempt to balance the universe against the inward pull of its own gravity, which he thought would ultimately cause the universe to implode. His "cosmological constant" remained a curious hypothesis until 1998, when Adam Riess and the members of the High-z Supernova Team and the Supernova Cosmology Project used ground-based telescopes and Hubble to detect the acceleration of the expansion of space from observations of distant supernovae. Astrophysicists came to the realization that Einstein may have been right after all: there really was a repulsive form of gravity in space that was soon after dubbed "dark energy."

Persistence of Memes

Meme Persistence RepositoryIt will take time for me to establish the principles under which a wormhole can essentially serve as a birth canal for what I am calling a PMR or what in normal language is called the “universe as we know it.” I will start by referencing the PMR as an Object in the formal sense in which it is used in a development paradigm called Object Oriented Development (OOD). OOD uses "objects" – data structures consisting of data fields and methods together with their interactions – to design new and more complex objects. Techniques may include features such as data abstraction, encapsulation, messaging, modularity, polymorphism, and Object Inheritance. Like human children, objects like PMRs, created either from an initial Void or from an earlier link in a Chain of Big Bang PMR creations, always inherit the characteristics or Memes of the parent object in a process called Persistence. This library of meme codes or instance creation (Instantiation) instructions is called a repository and we will call our PMR instantiation code library a Meme Repository (MR) and I must now develop a hypothesis of how this MR was physically established in the first birth canal/wormhole and how it was used to store the Information accrued by the parent object.

Physicists have attempted to describe what happens to matter during its lifetime in a black hole. They suggest that, from the perspective of quantum mechanics, the Information about the quantum state of a particle that enters a black hole goes with it. This isn’t a problem until the black hole starts to boil away through what’s now called Hawking Radiation, which creates a separate particle outside the event horizon while destroying one inside. Hawking reasoned that there would be many particle pairs appearing at the event horizon of a black hole. A pair of virtual particles appear and separate. Before they can meet again and annihilate, the particle with negative energy crosses the event horizon into the black hole. The partner with positive energy does not follow its unfortunate companion, because the gravitational field at the event horion of a black hole is strong enough to transform it from 'virtual' to 'real.' The transformation makes a remarkable difference to the pair. They are no longer obliged to find one another and annihilate. Both can live much longer, separately. The particle with positive energy might fall into the black hole, too, but it isn't reguired to. It can escape. To an observer at a distance it appears to emerge from the black hole. In fact, it comes from just outside. Meanwhile, its partner has carried negative energy into the black hole. Whena black hole loses mass through Hawking radiation, its gravitational pull becomes weaker out where the event horizon (the radius of no return) has been. Escape velocity at that radius becomes less than the speed of light. A new event horizon forms closer in. The event horizon has shrunk.

Hawking RadiationThis process ensures that the matter that escapes the black hole has no connection to the quantum state of the material that had gotten sucked in. However, it is possible to figure out how much Information has gotten drawn into the black hole. Once you do that, you can see that the total amount can be related to the surface area of the Event Horizon, which suggests where the information can persist. But since the event horizon is a two-dimensional surface, the information can't be stored as regular matter; instead, the event horizon forms a Hologram that holds the coded information of the matter passing through it. When that matter passes back out as Hawking radiation, the information is restored. The result is that the total information content of an advanced, intelligent civilization can be reduced to its molecular level and injected through this wormhole gateway to where it can then be reassembled as a binary map of instructions on the surface area. In turn this advanced civilization may reinject its seed and reestablish itself in full glory.

Stephen Hawking went on to mathematically prove that the black hole's Accretion Disk surface area measured in square Planck units serves as a store house of binary bits acquired by the black hole during the time of its existence. The thing that I find really exciting about this bit storage area is that in the event that I should someday find myself traveling through one of these things, all of the contents of my body, my brain, my laptop computer, my wallet, my library card, and all my credit cards will be stored at the event horizon for future reuse in creating the emerging collective consciousness of humanity or what I might call the Starchild. Other areas of the event horizon will contain the Library of Congress, all of Google's computers, the CIA archives, and maybe even Facebook for jump-starting the rest of our wide-screen holographic movie. And that big flat binary shelf of information never fills up because the amount of information contained within a region of space, stored in any objects of any design, is always less than the area of surface that surrounds the region (measured in square Planck units). Our PMR hologram may act as a limit on the information that can pass across a surface in space-time, rather than as a limit on the total amount of possible information. In this view, we will have to stop thinking about "things" as fundamental features of reality. Instead of things, reality would be made of processes, such as information flow.

By crude analogy, think of fish swimming inside a goldfish bowl. These fish think that their goldfish bowl corresponds to reality. Now imagine a two-dimensional holographic image of these fish is projected onto the surface of the bowl. This image contains an exact replica of the original fish, except they are flattened. Any movement that the fish make in the fish bowl is mirrored by the flat image on the surface of the fish bowl. Both the fish swimming in the bowl and the flattened fish living on the surface of the bowl think that they are the real fish, that the other is an illusion. Both fish are alive and act as if they are the true fish and they both are because they are mathematically equivalent and indistinguishable.

Instantiated Consciousness

Fully Instantiated Physical Matter RealityNow that I have established how holograms are stored in the Meme Repository by the natural, rule-driven functions of a wormhole, I still have the daunting task of determining how to use these stored holograms to create an Instantiated Unit Of Consciousness (IOUC) in the PMR who can have any perception of this wonderful creation and can evolve to contribute more complex memes to the instantiation of future objects. Once I have created a conscious observer, it will be child’s play to construct instantiations of planets, stars, galaxies, dark matter, and dark energy in which our IUOC will feel comfortable enough to relax and get about the business of bearing meme fruit. If I could have any hope of explaining this mutual existence pact between the PMR and its conscious observers it would be to say that the "universe"can be thought of as a information processor. It takes information regarding how things are now and produces information delineating how things will be at the next now, and the now after that. Our senses become aware of such processing by detecting how the physical environment changes over time. But the physical environment itself is emergent; it arises from the fundamental ingredient, information, and evolves according to the fundamental rules, the laws of physics.

I recognize that most of my readers are believers in what scientists regard as a theological creation myth with a truth probability approaching zero, and I am trying to be deferential to that belief system because it provides great emotional comfort and enables important social control structures. However, there have been many, many demonstrations that conscious experiences depend upon the brain's special features that have evolved by way of Darwinian selection. This functionality of the brain fits comfortably into the original contract between physics and biology and supplements standard physiochemical processes with cybernetic engineering. This 'bilateral contract' between physics and biology essentially provides feedback systems that respect physical laws made out of components that obey them. Like any theory which seeks to account for consciousness in terms of fundamental physical processes, this one must be 'panpsychic' in that it must suppose that there is a degree of consciousness present in any physical system (in or out of brains) in which these processes occur. One important feature of the panpsychic approach is that it can effectively block the "chicken and egg' question: "how did consciousness get into our PMR in the first place?" Like any other entity (e g. the force of gravity, the strong and weak forces of quantum mechanics) consciousness is a given, and the physics lies in working out its consequences. So if the theory of consciousness forms part of the fundamental laws of physics, we no longer need to ask how consciousness came about, any more than physicists generally ask how the 'Big Bang' came about.

And so we are all finite beings. We each have a limited place in the endless procession of things. Yet if we view our lives and those of others under the aspect of eternity, we have an intimation, at least, that their uniqueness and brevity, which seem to cut us off from the world and God, in truth joins us to them on account of these very qualities. We belong to the God of the world, and it to us, not despite but because of our individuality. It is because we are each one of a kind that our diverse contributions to the story of the world are required for its completion, and because of this that we have an indefeasable share, where we live and after we die, in the world's own deathless reality. No one can see this completely or rid himself entirely of the fear of dying. But those who are able even to grasp the point of trying will be rewarded with some understanding of what it means when we say that no array of terms can say how much I am at peace about God and about death. We are promised neither an eternal life in heaven, nor a contemplative union with the God of the world that requires us to consign our individual selves to the nothingness of the grave, but something at once more extravagant and more modest: a glimpse of God here and now, in every face and minute, subject to the limitations of insight and and feeling that confine the experience of all finite beings, ourselves included.


Our whole universe was in a hot dense state,
Big Bang TheoryThen nearly fourteen billion years ago expansion started… Wait!
Baryogenesis willed,
anthropic principle,
standard model had to fill,
A quantum wall (of information)
Math, science, history (unraveling the mysteries),
That all started with a Big Bang!

Since the dawn of man was really not that long,
As atoms begat molecules, a fraction of a second and the elements were made.
DNA began to rate,
Dinosaurs all met their fate,
Neurons aggregate,
Into brains of late, (we code our asses off).
The oceans and pangea,
See ya wouldn't wanna be ya.
Set in motion by the same Big Bang!

With knowledge and a thumb, we made tools for everyone.
Giving rise to our technology which provided us with
stories, Inscribed into ideas.
Hierarchic thought then had its day,
And recursion had its way,
As knowledge of our knowledge,
Grows exponentially.
Debating how we're here, and how to catch a deer.
Religion or astronomy (Descartes or Deuteronomy).
It all started with the Big Bang!

Exponential growth of informational technologies,
Birthed a global internet of thoughts.
Then the object code of life,
Was taken from our genome.
Reverse engineered into vastly better forms,
Loaded into probes with nanotech assemblers,
Seeking raw materials of life across the void.
Music and mythology, (Einstein and astrology).
It all started with the Big Bang.
It all started with the Big BANG!

Stripped of its Barenaked Ladies meter and reduced to academic language, the story of human intelligence starts with a universe that is capable of encoding information. This was the enabling factor that allowed evolution to take place. How the universe got to be this way is itself an interesting story. The standard model of physics has dozens of constants that need to be precisely what they are, or atoms would not have been possible, and there would have been no stars, no planets, no brains, and no songs to be sung. That the laws of physics are so precisely tuned to have allowed the evolution of information appears to be incredibly unlikely. Yet by the anthropic principle, we would not be singing about it if it were not the case. Where some people see a divine hand, others see a multiverse spawning an evolution of universe with the boring (non-information-bearing) ones dying out. But regardless of how our universe got to be the way it is, we can start our story with a world based on information.

The story of evolution unfolds with increasing levels of abstraction. Atoms--especially carbon atoms, which can create rich information structures by linking in four different directions--formed increasingly complex molecules. As a result, physics gave rise to chemistry.

A billion years later, a complex molecule called DNA evolved, which could precisely encode lengthy strings of information and generate organisms described by these "programs." As a result, chemistry gave rise to biology.

At an increasingly rapid rate, organisms evolved communication and decision networks called nervous systems, which could coordinate the increasingly complex parts of their bodies as well as the behaviors that facilitated their survival. The neurons making up the nervous systems aggregate into brains capable of increasingly intelligent behaviors. In this way, biology gave rise to neurology, as brains were now the cutting edge of storing and manipulating information. Thus we went from atoms to molecules to DNA to brains. The next step was uniquely human.

The mammalian brain has a distinct aptitude not found in any other class of animal. We are capable of hierarchical thinking, of understanding a structure composed of diverse elements arranged in a pattern, representing that arrangement with a symbol, and then using that symbol as an element in a yet more elaborate configuration. This capability takes place in a brain structure called the neocortex, which in humans has achieved a threshold of sophistication and capacity such that we are able to to call these patterns ideas. Through an unending recursive process we are capable of building ideas that are ever more complex. We call this vast array of recursively linked ideas knowledge. Only Homo sapiens have a knowledge base that itself evolves, grows exponentially, and is passed down from one generation to another.

Our brains gave rise to yet another level of abstraction, in that we have used the intelligence of our brains plus one other enabling factor, an opposing appendage--the thumb--to manipulate the environment to build tools. These tools represented a new form of evolution, as neurology gave rise to technology. It is only because of our tools that our knowledge base has been able to grow without limit.

Our first invention was the story: spoken language that enabled us to represent ideas with distinct utterances. With the subsequent invention of written language we developed distinct shapes to symbolize our ideas. Libraries of written language vastly extended the ability of our unaided brains to retain and extend our knowledge base of recursively structured ideas.


ThermoInfoComplexityWe all live in a vast stream of non-deterministic particles as they axiomatically construct quantum physics from the distinction between empirically observable, binary alternatives flowing in a river from the perfect order of the initial singularity to the total entropy waiting at the end of time's arrow.

Our universe started from a point of infinite density known as the Big Bang about 13.8 billion years ago, expanded extremely rapidly for a fraction of a second, and has then continued to expand much more slowly ever since. Elemental particles cooled and coalesced into atoms which survive through time by becoming as stable as possible by binding to other atoms through chance encounters. Through binding, atoms enter their lowest possible energy configuration and contain the highest information content able to be captured in their bond.

Once formed, this process is statistically irreversable, unless a large amount of energy is applied from outside the system in a thermoinfocomplexity reaction. Much later in time these atoms continued to coalesce into stars, planets, inorganic structures, more complex and more highly replicative organic structures, and ultimately complex adaptive systems currently topped on this planet by homo sapien sapiens. That expansion is now believed to be accelerating and is expected to ultimately result in a cold, uniform, featureless universe. In the meantime we have billions of years in which we can improve ourselves.

Every particle, every field of force, even the space-time continuum itself—derives its function, its meaning, its very existence entirely—even if in some contexts indirectly—from the apparatus-elicited answers to yes-or-no questions, binary choices, bits. 'It from bit' symbolizes the idea that every item of the physical world has at bottom—a very deep bottom, in most instances—an immaterial source and explanation; that which we call reality arises in the last analysis from the posing of yes–no questions and the registering of equipment-evoked responses; in short, that all things physical are information-theoretic in origin and that this is a participatory universe.

Diagnostic Irregularities

Complex adaptive systems or Information Gathering and Utilizing Systems (IGUS) like me arrived late in this river of apparent irregularities and Body Mass Indexalmost immediately begin to search our sensory inputs for regularity, such as often repeated sounds, so that we can organize those regularities into some framework or schema of experiential rules for understanding and speaking a language. Gradually, this internal set of rules is improved as the child constructs a sort of grammar in its mind.

The child who does this has exhibited the first characteristic of a complex adaptive system. She has compressed certain regularities identified in a body of experiences into a schema, which includes rules that govern that experience but omits the special circumstances in which the rules have to be applied. A complex adaptive system typically divides the input data stream into many parts that are in some way comparable to one another and searches for their common features. Information common to many parts, called "mutual information," is the diagnostic of regularities. In the case of a stream of text in a given languages, sentences could serve as parts to be compared. Mutual grammatical information among the sentences would point to grammatical regularities.

Quantum Decohesion

DecohesionThe collective experience of all complex adaptive systems as they decohere the set of irregularities and regularities within their observations is what scientists call a "coarse grained history of the universe" or what most of us think of as a "life narrative" or reality. This coarse grained or quasi-classical view of things contrasts with the quantum state known to science but difficult for the rest of us to grasp. I try to start simply by imagining a universe in which each particle has no attributes other than position and momentum and the indistinguishability of all particles of a given type. I then try to build my confidence by trying to think of one particle and then two particles before stretching to tackle the whole universe.

In classical physics it was legitimate to specify the position and momentum of a given particle at the same time, but in quantum mechanics that is forbidden by the uncertainty or indeterminancy principle. The position of a particle can be specified exactly, but its momentum will then be completely undetermined. In another kind of quantum state the momentum is specified but the position is completely undetermined. There is also an infinite variety of other possible quantum states for a single particle, in which neither position nor momentum is exactly specified, only a smeared-out probability distribution for each. For example, in a simple hydrogen atom, which consistts of a single (negatively charged) electron in the electric field of a single (positively charged) proton, the electron may find itself in the quantum state of lowest energy, in which its position is smeared out over a region of atomic size and its momentum is distributed as well.

Now consider a "universe" of two electrons. It is technically possible for their quantum state to be such that each electron is in a definite quantum state. However, that does not often occur in reality, because the two electrons interact, especially through the electrical repulsion between them. The helium atom, for example, consists of two electrons in the field of a central nucleus with a double positive charge. In the lowest energy state of the helium atom, it is not true that each of the two electrons is in a definite quantum state of its own, although that situation is sometimes discussed as an approximation. Instead, as a result of the interaction between the electrons, you can "sum over" all the positions (or momenta or values of any other attribute) of the second electron, and your electron is then not in a definite ('pure") quantum state but instead has a set of probabilities for various pure single-electron quantum states. Your electron is said to be in a "mixed quantum state."

Can we then proceed directly to the consideration of the whole universe. If the universe is in a pure quantum state, it is a quantum state such that the states of all the individual particles it contains are entangled with one another. If we sum over all all the situations in some parts of the universe, then the rest of the universe (what is "followed," what is not summed over) is in a mixed quantum state. In other words, the quantum state of the universe is like a book that contains the answers to an infinite variety of questions. Such a book is not really useful without a list of those questions to be asked of it. The modern interpretation of quantum mechanics is being constructed by means of a discussion of the appropriate questions to ask of the quantum state of the universe.

When I was first beginning to try and understand quantum mechanics, I couldn't figure out why the earth's satellite (the moon) didn't spread out in its orbit since it was sort of a decoherence created by the collective observation of all of the complex adaptive systems who were staring up from the earth's surface at any given time. After learning that the photons scattering off the surface of the moon are summed over into a coarse grained approximation watched long ago by Newton, I was awestruck that we humans are provided with all of these quasi-classical appearances of orderliness as way stations toward a real understanding of things.

Such decoherence mechanisms make possible the existence of the quasi-classical domain that includes ordinary experience. That domain consists of decoherent coarse-grained life narratives, which can be envisioned as forming a tree-like structure. At each branching, there are mutually exclusive alternatives. A pair of such alternatives has often been likened to a fork in a road, as in Robert Frost's poem "The Road Not Taken." The structure first branches into alternative possibilities right at, or just after, the beginning of the expansion of the universe. Each branch then splits again a short time later into further alternatives, and so on for all of time. At each branching there are well defined probabilities for the alternatives. There is no quantum interference between them.

The pruning of branches replaces what, in the traditional interpretation of quantum mechanics is usually called the "collapse of the wave function." The collapse is often presented as if it were a mysterious phenomenon peculiar to quantum mechanics. Since pruning, however, is just the recognition that one or another of a set of decohering alternatives has occurred, it is quite familiar. The point often left unclear in the discussions of the so-called collapse is that even if the pruning involves the measurement of a quantum state, it is still an ordinary discrimination among decohering alternatives. Quantum events can be detected only at the level of the quasiclassical domain. There the situation is just one of classic probabilities, as in throws of the dice or tosses of the coin, with the probabilities changing to one and zero when the outcome is known. The quasiclassical domain admits the possibility of reasonably persistent records of the outcome, records that can be amplified or copied over and over in a quasiclassical chain of near-certain agreement of each record with the previous one. Once a quantum event is correlated with the quasiclassical domain (creating a measurement situation), the particular outcome in a given branch of history becomes a fact.

Quantum Free Will

The human brain has greatly enlarged frontal lobes compared with those of our close relatives the great apes. Neurobiologists have identified areasFree Will of the frontal lobes that seem to be associated with self-awareness and intention, thought to be especially well developed in human beings. In conjunction with the many parallel processing strands in human thought, consciousness or attention seems to refer to a sequential process, a kind of spotlight that can be turned from one idea to another in rapid succession. When we believe we are attending to many different things at once, we may really be employing the spotlight in a time-sharing mode, moving it around among the various objects of our attention. The parallel processing strands differ in their accessability to consciousness, and some sources of human behavior lie buried in layers of thought that are difficult to bring to conscious awareness. Nevertheless, we do say that utterances and other actions are to a considerable degree under conscious control, and that statement reflects not only the recognition of the spotlight of the awareness but also the strong belief that we have a degree of free will, that we can choose among alternatives. What objective phenomena give rise to that subjective impression of free will? To say a decision is taken freely means that it is not strictly determined by what has gone before. What is the source of that indeterminancy?

A tempting explanation is that it is connected with fundamental indeterminancies, presumably those of quantum mechanics enhanced by classical phenomena such as chaos. A human decision would then have unpredictable features, which could be labeled retrospectively as freely chosen. It makes me wonder what feature of the human brain cortex makes the contribution of quantum fluctuations and chaos particularly prominent there. Instead of invoking only those straightforwardly physical effects, we might also consider processes more directly associated with the brain and the mind. For a given coarse graining, all the phenomena that are summed over (not followed) can contribute apparent indeterminancies that are lumped in with quantum fluctuations. Since there are always many strands of thought not illuminated by the searchlight of consciousness, those strands are being summed over in the extremely coarse-grained histories that are consciously remembered. The resulting indeterminancies would seem more likely to contribute to the subjective impression of free will than the indeterminancies narrowly associated with physics. In other words, human beings probably act on hidden motives more often than they use the results of an internal randum or pseudorandum number generator. But the whole matter is poorly understood, and for the time being we can only speculate.

Three Wise Men

Three Wise MenLet's suppose that the quantum mechanics of the universe allows mathematically for various possible maximal quasiclassical domains that are genuinely inequivalent. Suppose, too, that complex adaptive systems actually evolved to exploit some coarse graining of each of these maximal quasiclassical domains. Each domain then provides a set of alternative coarse-grained histories of the universe, and information gathering and utilization systems (IGUSes) record in each case the outcomes of various probabilistic branchings in the tree of possible histories, a tree that would be quite different in the different cases. If there is some degree of agreement in the phenomena followed by the two (or three) otherwise distinct quasiclassical domains, the three IGUSes might become aware of each other and even communicate to some extant. But a great deal of what is followed by one IGUS could not be apprehended directly by the other. Only through a quantum-mechanical calculation (in a shared Laboratory) might one IGUS achieve any appreciation of the full range of phenomena perceived by the other.

Could an observer utilizing one domain really become aware that the other domains, with their own sets of branching histories and their own observers, were available as alternative descriptions of the possible histories of the universe. This fascinating issue was raised during the LAX weekend by your humble narrator, Joe and Rodger and will require some further development. As Niels Bohr is quoted as saying "If someone says that he can think about quantum mechanics without becoming dizzy, that shows only that he has not understood anything whatever about it."

Pattern Recognition

I have tried to present the methods by which complex adaptive systems identify regularities in the data streams they receive and compress thoseRecognition regularities into schemata. In doing so, it is easy for them to make two types of error--mistaking randomness for regularity and vice versa--it is reasonable to suppose that complex adaptive systems would tend to evolve toward a roughly balanced situation in which correct identification of some regularities would be accompanied by both kinds of mistakes. Contemplating patterns of human thought, we can, in a crude fashion, identify superstition with one kind of error and denial with the other. Superstitions typically involve seeing order where in fact there is none, and denial amounts to rejecting evidence of regularities, sometimes even ones that are staring us in the face. Through introspection and also by observation of other human beings, each of us can detect an association of both sorts of error with fear.

In the one case, people are scared by the unpredictability and especially the uncontrollability of much that we see around us. Some of that unpredictability stems ultimately from the fundamental indeterminacies of quantum mechanics and the further limitations of prediction imposed by chaos. A huge amount of additional coarse graining , with consequent unpredictability, comes from the restricted range and capacity of our senses and instruments: we can pick up only a minuscule amount of information about the universe that is available in principle. Finally we are handicapped by our inadequate understanding and by our limited ability to calculate.

The resulting scarcity of rhyme and reason frightens us and so we impose on the world around us, even on random facts and chance phenomena, artificial order based on false principles of causation. In that way, we comfort ourselves with the illusion of predictability and even of mastery. We fantasize that we can manipulate the world around us by appealing to the imaginary forces we have invented. In the case of denial, we are able to detect genuine patterns but they scare us so much that we blind ourselves to their existence. Evidently the most threatening regularity in our lives is the certainty of death. Numerous beliefs, including some of the most tenaciously held, serve to alleviate anxiety over death. When specific beliefs of that kind are widely shared in a culture, their soothing effect on the individual is multiplied.

But such beliefs typically include invented regularities, so that denial is accompanied by superstition. Moreover, taking another look at superstitions such as those of sympathetic magic, we see that belief in them can be maintained only by denying their manifest defects, especially their frequent failure to work. The denial of real regularities and the imposition of false ones are thus seen to be two sides of the same coin. Not only are human beings prone to both, but the two tend to accompany and support each other.

If this sort of analysis is justified, then we can conclude that intelligent complex adaptive systems on planets scattered throughout the universe should tend to err in both directions in identifying regularities in their input data. In more anthropomorphic terms, we can expect intelligent complex adaptive systems everywhere to be liable to a mixture of superstition and denial. Whether it makes sense, apart from human experience, to describe that mixture in terms of alleviation of fear is another matter.

A slightly different way of looking at superstition in a complex adaptive system suggests that perhaps superstition might be somewhat more prevalent than denial. The system can be regarded as having evolved in great part to discover patterns, so that a pattern becomes in a sense its own reward, even if it confers no particular advantage in the real world. A pattern of that kind can be regarded as a "selfish scheme," somewhat analogous to the selfish gene.

Examples from human experience are not difficult to find, especially at the social level where there are numerous selection pressures in the real world besides the alleviation of fear. Superstitious beliefs may serve to reinforce the powers of shamans or priests. An organized belief system, complete with myths, may motivate compliance with codes of conduct and cement the bonds uniting the members of a society. Over the ages belief systems have served to organize mankind into groups that are not only internally cohesive, but sometimes intensely competitive with one another, often to the point of conflict or persecution, sometimes accompanied by massive violence.

Alongside the devastating effects of systems of belief, their positive achievements stand out sharply as well, especially the glorious music, architecture, literature, sculpture, painting, and dance that have been inspired by particular mythologies. In the face of the overwhelming greatness of so much of the art related to mythology, we need to re-examine the significance of false regularities. In addition to exerting a powerful influence on human intellect and emotions and leading to the creation of magnificent art, mythical beliefs clearly have a further significance that transcends their literal falsity and their connection with superstition. They encapsulate experience gained through centuries and millennia of interaction with nature and with human culture. They contain not only lessons but also, by implication, prescriptions for behavior. They are vital parts of the cultural schemata of societies functioning as complex adaptive systems.

In the immortal words of Walt Whitman, "a leaf of grass is no less than the journeywork of the stars."

Top of Page

Musings Index

Another 9/11 Anniversary


How Did Here Get Here?

Chase's 7th Birthday

The Fabric of Reality

A Clockwork Orange

Epistomology Strand

The Grand Inquisitor

Consumerism Versus Genocide

Art for Art's Sake

Edvard Munch

Vasili Kandinsky

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner

Piet Mondrian

Kasemir Malevich

Rene Magritte

Salvador Dali

Evolutionary Strand

Information Theory Strand

Traversable Wormholes

Awareness Communicated

The Mother Singularity

Mimetic Theory

The Standard Model

Thought and Symbol

The Schwarzschild Radius

Symbolic Technologies

Dark Things

Fukuyama on Transhumanism

Are We There Yet?

A Transhumanist Manifesto

The Arrows of Time

A Quantum Telescope


The Road to Reason

Persistence of Memes

Now What?

Instantiated Consciousness


Evolution of God


The Rise of Yahweh

Semitic Origins


Galileo's Commandment

The Relevancy of Science

The Bible

The Quran

Marketing God

Adam and Eve

Cain and Abel

Noah and the Ark

Procreation Management

Machining a New Soul

The Human Codon Alphabet

Symbiotic Colony

The Moist Robot

Bottom Up Genealogy

The Genetic Revolution

The Nanotechnology Revolution

The Robotic Revolution

Universal Information Processing

Memetic Matryoshka


Holonomic Brain Theory

Introduction to Wetware

Seeing in a Quantum World

Thinking In the Quantum World


What's the Matter?

Post Primordial Nucleosynthesis

The CNO Cycle

The Genesis Stone


Chemistry to Biochemistry



Biochemistry to Neurobiology

Molecular History

Under the Tree of Life

Matter Conclusion


A Mind in a Cloud


From the Other Side

Marcel Duchamp

Pablo Picasso

Echos of Ray Bradbury



Formative Books

Herculaneum's Library

Roman Public Libraries



Religious Pluralism


Diagnostic Irregularities

Quantum Decohesion

Quantum Free Will

Three Wise Men

Pattern Recognition